As Plutarch reveals, Alcibiades of Athens was an individual whose great talents and advantages in life were matched by his desire and ambition. He could have led Athens to victory in the Peloponnesian War in defense of its independence and imperial power, but instead he fled into exile when attacked politically and gave strategic and tactical advice to the Spartans, gravely damaging Athenian prospects in the war. As in the case of Alcibiades, he was, as Plutarch shows, a man of tremendous talent and equally powerful ambition.
We will need to consider what went wrong in his career and where responsibility lies for his failure at Rome. He was a citizen with the social rank to enjoy individual liberty in early Republican Rome, yet he betrayed his country in war. Did he fail to balance his liberty with a concomitant sense of responsibility? Like the other men whose biographies we are reading, Caesar must wrestle with the issue of how to balance his desire for personal glory with his responsibility to his community.
We will want to discuss how and why Caesar becomes so wildly popular at Rome and also why he encounters such bitter opposition from a faction of the senatorial elite.
We will want to ask if the reactions to Caesar reflected traditional Roman attitudes to the liberty and responsibility of the different social classes at Rome. PLoS Biol 8 10 : e This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Competing interests: The author has declared that no competing interests exist. California's Sierra Nevada mountains are dotted with populations of checkerspot butterflies that belong to the same species but lead separate lives. The populations are differentiated by the host plants where females lay their eggs, with one type favoring Collinsis torreyi blue-eyed Mary and the other favoring Pedicularis semibarbata pine lousewort.
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Other than that, the checkerspots are much the same. They are alike morphologically and genetically, and can also interbreed and produce hybrid offspring.
So what does keep them apart? New work by Carolyn McBride and Michael Singer in this issue of PLoS Biology reveals it is traits that let each type get the most out of its chosen host plants, but put hybrids at a disadvantage on either plant. Such divergence of populations, where offspring are viable but maladapted due to intermediate traits not suited to either ecological niche, is called extrinsic postzygotic isolation EPI and is thought to be an early stage in the formation of new species. However, there are few examples of EPI and most are in cases where strong barriers to mating already exist, leaving the extent of EPI's contribution to speciation in question.
The apparent lack of mating barriers between the Sierra Nevada checkerspot populations makes this a particularly good system for teasing out the relative strength of EPI as a driver of speciation. Prototype buy track about This album is a compilation of stories told through songs, each one representing a line, a character with different experiences to others but coexisting in an infinite space, full of human beings with parallel lives. I am the messenger, I am Meteor.
How the poet found his last words by looking out the window.
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